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Overview of the development history, main sources and classification of NMN similar compounds

Release time: 2020-12-14

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Overview of the development history, main sources and classification of NMN similar compounds

  Niacin (NA) is vitamin B3, a member of the vitamin B family, and one of the 13 essential vitamins for the human body. It is a water-soluble vitamin. NA can be converted into nicotinamide (NAM) in animals. Natural NA can be derived from animal viscera or muscle tissue, and can also be derived from fruits, vegetables, seeds, fungi, etc.


  Niacin (NA) was first synthesized in the laboratory in 1867. In 1937, biochemist Conrad Elvehjem discovered that NA could treat pellagra in dogs, which made NA and its derivative NAM begin to be used in the treatment of diseases. After that, NA realized industrialization. Now the production of NA mainly includes chemical synthesis methods (including various oxidation methods and hydrolysis methods), biosynthesis methods (including enzyme catalysis and fermentation methods).


  Niacinamide (NAM) is the amide compound of niacin (NA), and sometimes NAM is also called vitamin B3. NAM is rich in lean meat, beans, fish, and peanuts. Its discovery history is the same as that of NAM. The industrialized NAM synthesis method is similar to NA. It needs to form NA first, and then amidate NA to obtain NAM. By promoting NAD + redox homeostasis and providing NAD + as a substrate for a class of enzymes that catalyze non-redox reactions, it plays an important role in cell physiology. Nicotinamide is an inhibitor of SIRT1.


  Nicotinamide ribose (NR) is naturally found in milk and dairy products. In 1944, NR was first discovered by scientists as a growth factor of Haemophilus influenzae. In 2004, NR was used as a precursor of NAD+ for anti-aging research. NR began to be industrialized in 2012. As a dietary supplement to increase the level of NAD+, NR in its natural form is extremely unstable. Currently, NR used in dietary supplements is in its chloride form.


  Oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is oxidized coenzyme I. NAD+ is widely present in various foods, and the metabolism of all living cells is inseparable from Coenzyme I. NAD+ was first discovered in the alcoholic fermentation process of yeast in 1904. With the rise and deepening of NAD+ anti-aging research, dietary supplements with NAD+ as the main ingredient appeared on the market around 2018. However, studies on the bioavailability of NAD+ indicate that the ingested NAD+ is mainly hydrolyzed by brush border cells in the small intestine.


  Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), or reduced coenzyme I, together with NAD+, acts as an important redox pair in cells, and is found to be widely present in various foods. NADH began clinical research in the 1980s, mainly used to improve chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, depression and other diseases, and also used to improve cell energy. Since the 1990s, NADH dietary supplements have appeared on the market. Because NADH itself has reducing properties, it is a natural and highly effective antioxidant substance in cells.